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Max Lane: The Impossibility of Citizenship

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(This article is an edited transcript of Dr. Max Lane's lecture at International Workshop on Power, Conflict & Democracy 2018 in Yogyakarta, 26-28 October 2018)

The increased discussion on citizenship is the idea that transition to democracy is either taking place or has taking place. Several key advances in the transition from dictatorship to democracy after 1998: (1) there is a systematic armed coercion in political life; (2) there is increased freedom of speech and criticism (although there are some limitation, e.g. Marxism banned, advocacy of 80ism is still banned); (3) there is extended participation in election (but some limitation for certain ideology). Parliament also making it more and more difficult for new party to participate in election. We now has a system where government is formed on the basis of popular election. The New Order's election did not really decide who will govern but then Habibie's government allows the freedom of association (trade union).